Publication

Title: Primary drug resistance in South Africa - data from 10 years of surveys
Authors: Manasa J, Katzenstein D, Cassol S, Newell ML, de Oliveira T.
Journal: AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses,28(6):558-565 (2012)

Journal Impact Factor (I.F.): 2.178
Number of citations (Google Scholar): 45

Abstract

Background:

HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) could reverse the gains of antiretroviral rollout. To ensure that current 1st line therapies remain effective, TDR levels in recently infected treatment-naive patients need to be monitored.

Methods:

A literature review and data mining exercise was carried out to determine the temporal trends in TDR in South Africa. In addition, 72 sequences from seroconvertors identified from Africa Centre's 2010 HIV surveillance round were also examined for TDR. Publicly available data on TDR were retrieved from Genbank, curated in RegaDB and analyzed using the Calibrated Population Resistance Program.

Results:

There was no evidence of TDR from the 2010 rural KwaZulu Natal samples. Ten datasets with a total of 1618 sequences collected between 2000 and 2010 were pooled to provide a temporal analysis of TDR. The year with the highest TDR rate was 2002 (6.67%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.09-13.79%; n: 6/90). After 2002, TDR levels returned to <5% (WHO low-level threshold) and showed no statistically significant increase in the interval between 2002 and 2010. The most common mutations were associated with NNRTI resistance, K103N, followed by Y181C and Y188C/L. Five sequences had multiple resistance mutations associated with NNRTI resistance.

Conclusions:

There is no evidence of TDR in rural KwaZulu-Natal. TDR levels in South Africa have remained low following a downward trend since 2003. Continuous vigilance in monitoring of TDR is needed as more patients are initiated and maintained onto antiretroviral therapy.

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Citation: Manasa J, Katzenstein D, Cassol S, Newell ML, de Oliveira T. Primary drug resistance in South Africa - data from 10 years of surveys AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses,28(6):558-565 (2012).

Summary PowerPoint Presentation

Manasa J, Katzenstein D, Cassol S, Newell ML, de Oliveira T. Primary drug resistance in South Africa - data from 10 years of surveys .AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses,28(6):558-565 (2012)

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Video/Movie


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Interview about paper showing low level of primary (i.e. transmitted) HIV-1 drug resistance in South Africa.


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Printed and Online Media Coverage

IAS

Transmitted Drug Resistance Rate Remains Below 5% in South AfricaIAS - 2012-03-05

by Mark Mascolini - Analysis of South Africans with newly diagnosed, untreated HIV infection indicates low levels of transmitted antiretroviral-resistant HIV across the country through 2010 and no evidence of transmitted drug-resistant HIV in rural KwaZulu Natal


SATuRN/BioAfrica Reports on this Publication

A survey of 10 years of primary drug resistance in South Africa

SATuRN 2011 report, date: 2011-12-01

Manasa J, Cassol S, Seebregts C, Newell M-L, de Oliveira T